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Chicago Manual of Style (Notes-Bibliography System)

Based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition


A “Bibliography” page is a list of citations of all sources used at the very end of the paper.

  • Title the page “Bibliography” and center it at the top of the page.
  • Begin the first line of the citation at the left margin. Use hanging indent (5 spaces to the right) for all subsequent lines.
  • Arrange all citations in alphabetical order. Ignore beginning articles such as: “the,” “a,” and “an.” See a sample Bibliography page on the right.

Formatting Your Citations

When citing your sources:

  • First, determine what type of resource your are citing (e.g., book, newspaper article, magazine article, journal article, web site).
  • The bibliography format for citing each type of resource is different.
  • Once you determine which type of resource your are citing, then follow the instructions for that specific type of resource. (See the different tabs in this guide).

NOTE: In a bibliographic citation, if the author is the same as the one before, use 3 dashes [---] in the second citation in place of the author's name. See the Foucault, Michel example in the sample Bibliography on the right.

Sample Bibliography (Chicago)