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APA Style (7th edition)

Based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.

What is a Reference?

A reference is the full-citation to your source that you have cited in your work and it generally has four basic elements, each of which answers a question. For example:

  • Author - who is responsible for this work?
  • Date - When was this work published/last updated?
  • Title - What is this work called?
  • Source - Where can this work be found?

The basic template of a reference citation in APA 7th is:

Author. (Date). TitleSource.

Preparing Your References Page

When creating your References page, you need to:

  1. Start a separate page at the end of your paper.  Bold the title and label it “References” at the center of the page.
  2. Double-space throughout the page.
  3. Begin the first line of the citation at the left margin and use hanging indent (5 spaces to the right) for all subsequent lines.
  4. Arrange all works cited in alphabetical order by the first word of each entry.

    Note: Ignore the beginning articles such as: "the," "a," and "an." 

Example Reference List

What To Do When Information is Missing

See the chart below for guidelines what to do when an element is missing (adapted from Table 9.1 in the APA Manual).