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Research Guides

PIT CLAS 164 - Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius - Prof Lieberman - FA 2017

Citation/Formatting Guides

Citing Ancient Sources

Citing ancient sources (i.e. primary literature)

Classics uses a specialized, precise method of citiation. The proper format for citing classical texts:

[Author], [Title] [Book/Section.(Poem, if applicable)].[Line #s cited]



Homer, Iliad 18.141-143.
Sophocles, Antigone 904-922.
Horace, Odes 4.1.1-4.
Vergil, Eclogues 1.1-10.


Cicero, First Catilinarian 14.2. Plato, Symposium 215a3-218b7.

Omitting Name of Work: If an author wrote only one work, you may omit the name of the work; for example: Herodotus 9.1; rather than Herodotus, Histories 9.1.

Abbreviations: Most classical authors and texts do have standard abbreviations that you may want to employ; see the link above to find them.

Capitalization: If you are generically citing a specific book in a work, capitalize both elements (Book Eighteen or Book 18 or Book XVIII); generic references, such as “several books in the Iliad,” should not be capitalized.

NOTE: If you are including a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence – e.g. (Homer, Odyssey 1.1-3) – the period always follows the citation.


Citation Manager Tools

Citation Managers are tools to help you keep track of your citations as you research and to create/format your citations and bibliography.