Access to scholarship is often behind a online journal or database subscription paywall or out-of-reach geographically. Would it benefit others around the world to have access to the research you've done and data you've created? Should the world have access to that research? Is there anything contained in the work that would jeopordize the privacy of a subject or worse? Does the picture you are posting include compromising behavior of another person? You'll want to consider all of these questions before putting material online.
This was an urban legend that was harmful not only in terms of infringing on the photographers copyright, but also in terms of spreading misinformation. The photographer was actually intending to dispel myths and misperseptions; blindly re-sharing without verifying only served to add insult to injury, virally.